TPO49 Integrated Writing
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Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.
Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on the specific methods proposed in the reading passage.
题目原文:
Like many creatures, humpback whales migrate long distances for feeding and mating purposes. How animals manage to migrate long distances is often puzzling. In the case of humpback whales, we may have found the answer: they may be navigating by the stars, much as early human sailors did. What we know about humpback whales makes this a distinct possibility.
First, humpback whales seem to be intelligent enough to use stars to navigate by. Whales' brains have a high degree of complexity--a common determiner of intelligence. This suggests that the whales' brain power far exceeds that of most other animals. The whales' well-developed cognitive ability seems to provide a sound basis for the ability to use a complex, abstract system of sensory stimuli such as the night sky for orientation.
Second, humpback whales migrate in straight lines. Animals can maintain movement in a straight direction for long distances only if they orient themselves by some external objects or forces. Many birds and other terrestrial creatures, for example, use physical landmarks to help them stay on track as they migrate. Whales, which swim in the open ocean, cannot rely on land features; they could, however, rely on stars at night to provide them with external signs by which to maintain direction over long distances.
Third, humpback whales exhibit an unusual behavior: they are sometimes observed floating straight up for minutes at a time, their heads above the water as though they were looking upward. The behavior is known as spy-hopping, and it is very rare among marine animals. One explanation for the function of spy-hopping is that the whales are looking at the stars, which are providing them with information to navigate by.
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Time:37s
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In the reading passage, the author states that humpback whales may navigate by stars to migrate long distances. However, the professor refutes this idea and thinks the reasons listed in the reading are unconvincing.  First of all, the author claims that humpback whales are intelligent enough to navigate by stars, while the professor states that there is no correlation between intelligence and an animal’s ability to use stars for navigation. For example, some birds such as ducks evolved the ability for navigation by stars. And ducks are only of general cognitive ability, not as advanced as humpback whales’. So, it seems that there is no real connection between intelligence and the ability to use stars for navigation. In addition, the author argues that humpback whales have no land features in the ocean to help them migrate in straight lines for long distance. So, they have to rely on stars. However, the professor challenges this statement by pointing out that the presence of biomagnetite in the brains of humpback whales enables them to be sensitive to Earth’s magnetic field. It is Earth’s magnetic field that helps humpback whales to migrate. Finally, the professor cast doubt on what is stated in the reading that humpback whales look at the stars through spy-hopping, which is a rare behavior among marine animals. He claims that there is no connection between spy-hopping and looking at stars since there are other animals exhibit this behavior but do not migrate, such as sharks. Also, humpback whales do spyhop during the day when there are no stars can be seen in the sky. So, the statement that humpback whales adopt spyhopping to look at stars is not convincing.
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